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Pharmacogenetics (PGx)

Right Drug, Right Dose Through Personalized Medicine

Doctor’s generally prescribe medications based upon symptoms or because of the results of a physical. However, according to more than 75% of people have genetic variations that affect how they respond to the most commonly prescribed medications.


Now, with a DNA assessment called Pharmacogenomics, your doctor can reduce trial and error, and prescribe the most effective medicine and dosage with the least amount of risk and unwanted side effects right from the start.


Pharmacogenomics is a science that combines pharmacology, (the science of drugs) and genomics, (the study of genes and their functions). This can determine how our genetic variations affect our individual response to a medication through gene to drug, and drug to drug reactions.   


For example, on an individualized basis, pharmacogenomic tests can identify the most effective blood-thinner or anti-depressant and their dosages, or if you will in fact metabolize codeine to morphine, which must happen for it to be an effective pain reliever.


Additionally, the results may not only call for a change in your current medications, but they will also be part of your medical records and could be a “road map” for your future medications.

prescribed stimulants

If you are being prescribed stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, or antianxiety medications:

The personalized results of a your pharmacogenomic test can provide additional information to assist your physician in determining the most effective medication, dosage, and medical protocols specifically for you.

A patient’s genetic profile can help define the appropriateness and dosage of many prescribed psychotropic drugs including:

Therapeutic Class                                                   Name of Drug


Aripiprazole (Abilify®)
Haloperidol (Haldol®)
Olanzapine (Zalasta®)
Risperidone (Risperdal®)
Zuclopenthixol (Clopixol®)
Thioridazine (Mellaril®)


Clozaban (Onfi®)
Phenytoin (Dilantin®)

Antidementia                                                           Donepezil (Aricept®)

Selective Serotonin
Reuptake Inhibitors



Citalopram (Celexa®)
Fluvoxamine (Luvox®)
Escitalopram (Lexapro®)
Fluoxetine (Prozac®)
Paroxetine (Paxil®)
Venlafaxine (Effexor®)


Atomoxetine (Strattera®)


Amitriptyline (Elavil®)
Clomipramine (Anafranil®)
Desipramine (Norpramin®)
Doxepin (Deptran®)
Imipramine (Tofranil®)
Protriptyline (Vivactil®)
Trimipramine (Surmontil®)

Smoking Cessation Agents

Bupropion (Wellbutrin®)


If you are being prescribed Cardiovascular medications:


Coronary artery disease medications are influenced by multiple genes that interact in complicated ways. The personalized results of  your pharmacogenomic test can provide additional information to assist your physician in determining the most effective medication and dosage and medical protocols specifically for you.

 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC®)

CPIC guidelines are designed to help clinicians understand HOW available genetic test results should be used to optimize drug therapy, rather than WHETHER tests should be ordered. See link for more information:

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